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16
Nov

National HIV and AIDS Priority Areas

Joint efforts from public, private sectors, civil society and communities are needed in order to accomplish the NACP set goals. Prioritisation is essential to ensure that limited resources are utilized to produce the desired goals. The  Health Sector Strategy for HIV and AIDS -II, (HSHSP - II) - 2008-2012 has identified a limited number of national HIV priority areas, rather than attempt to include “every thing that needs to be done” in the plan.

The three goals of the health Sector response will be attained through objectives, strategies, interventions and activities in four main Thematic Areas:

Thematic area 1: Prevention

The objective of this priority area is to reduce the number of new HIV infections among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) and the community at large.

Introduction

The HIV epidemic in Tanzania is the result of a complex interplay between biological, socio-cultural and socio-economic factors. The strategies outlined here aim to decrease the risk of infection among the general population, with special attention to young people, both through enhancing knowledge and skills and through making relevant health services more accessible and youth friendly. The health sector at the community level will contribute towards a dialogue about sexuality, gender roles and cultural practices in order to initiate critical reflection and action to reduce local factors that increase vulnerability to HIV.

Availability of relevant health services, such as management of Sexually Transmitted Infections, HIV Testing and Counseling (HTC), Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) and Safe Blood will be further expanded while safeguarding the quality and ensuring gender sensitivity.  Condoms, both male and female, will be made available in all health facilities. Further more, additional innovative outlets and channels will be established to increase availability and accessibility of condoms to the general population.

The available evidence shows that financial resources allocated to broad prevention programs have a range of positive effects on public health in general. A comprehensive review of literature concludes that “broad primary prevention programs are at least 28 times more cost-effective than HAART, and that broad primary prevention has a range of positive spin-off effects on public health and disease control in general and no known side-effects.” Therefore an intensified and comprehensive prevention program is very critical.

Intervention Area 1: Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV

Preamble
Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV (PMTCT) has become a crucial intervention in the global fight against the epidemic. In Tanzania about 1.4 million women become pregnant each year. Data from ANC HIV sentinel surveillance sites in Tanzania (2005) indicate that the overall HIV prevalence among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics is 8.2%. When effectively and appropriately implemented, PMTCT services have the potential to prevent infection in babies who would otherwise be born HIV-positive or contract the infection during delivery and breast feeding.

Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV core interventions include:

  • Information on testing and counseling on preventing HIV transmission (Primary prevention).
  • Access to family planning services for women living with HIV and AIDS and their partners. (Prevent unintended pregnancies).
  • Use of antiretroviral drugs to prevent HIV transmission from mother to child.
  • Access to HIV treatment, care and support for infected mothers, infants and other family members.

In order to provide the above PMTCT intervention will be:

  • Implemented through multi-sectoral and multidisciplinary approaches necessitating effective coordination and partnerships of all actors under government leadership, and involving all stakeholders in the public, private and NGO sectors, civil society and PLHIV in the planning, implementation and monitoring of programmes.
  • Delivered as part of comprehensive RCH and HIV and AIDS packages and will therefore be integrated with other relevant RCH services (ANC, delivery, PNC, EPI, IMCI, FP) and HIV and AIDS services (prevention including client and provider-initiated counselling and testing, care, support and HIV and AIDS treatment including opportunistic infections (OI) and ART).
  • Based on scientifically and ethically sound approaches.
  • Of high quality and provided at all levels of health system.

Strategic Objectives:

Increase the percentage of HIV positive pregnant women who receive ARVs from 34% in 2007 to 80% by 2012 to reduce the transmission of HIV from mothers to their children, during pregnancy, birth and/or breast-feeding and ensure access to care and treatment for mothers and babies.

  • Advocate for and increase awareness and commitment to addressing PMTCT and paediatric HIV prevention care, treatment and support among key stakeholders, including partners, policy makers and leaders at all levels.
  • Strengthen the provision of quality PMTCT and paediatric HIV prevention care, treatment and support integrated into maternal new born and child health services to all health facility levels.
  • Improve delivery of community PMTCT and paediatric HIV prevention care, treatment and support and referral of HIV-infected women, their children and families.

Intervention Area 2a:  Prevention of Sexual Transmission of HIV: STI Prevention and Management

 

Preamble
Adequate treatment of patients with sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) and their partners can reduce the rate of transmission of HIV in the population, as has been demonstrated in a community based STI intervention study done in Mwanza, Tanzania in 1995. Furthermore, it reduces the reproductive – tract and obstetric complications associated with STIs. Interventions for STIs have therefore been considered essential in HIV prevention programmes. However, the public in general, particularly young people, tend to be ill-informed about STIs. According to Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) 2004-2005, about 11% of the sexual population contract STIs annually while it is assumed that, only 60% utilizes the existing STIs services.

The Surveillance of HIV and Syphilis Infection among Antenatal Mothers in the reproductive and child health (RCH), 2005/2006 indicates the overall syphilis sero-prevalence of 6.9% (Surveillance of HIV and Syphilis Infections among antenatal clinic attendees 2005/2006).

Strategic Objective
To expand quality comprehensive STI services and enhance appropriate utilization of services.

Strategies:


1.   Expand coverage of quality comprehensive STI services to all public, FBO and private health facilities and make the services user friendly particularly for youth and other vulnerable population
2.   Assure quality for STI services (clinical aspects).

Improve STI programme management and coordination at all Intervention areas

2b:  Prevention of Sexual Transmission of HIV:  Male Circumcision

Preamble
The association of male circumcision (MC) and reduced HIV prevalence has been reported in a number of observational studies. Three randomized controlled trials conducted in South Africa and the neighboring countries of Kenya and Uganda on male circumcision and HIV transmission have demonstrated a 50-60% decrease in the risk of acquiring HIV infection among men who underwent circumcision during the trial compared to those who were not circumcised.  Therefore, there is compelling global evidence that safe male circumcision should be one of the public health interventions to reduce the transmission of HIV especially in countries with high HIV and AIDS burden and low male circumcision prevalence. Furthermore, other studies have demonstrated a number of other health benefits of male circumcision including reduction of: RTIs in children, Genital Ulcer Disease, cervical and penile carcinoma. Reported social benefits include increased sexual pleasure in both partners and personal hygiene.

The practice of male circumcision in Tanzania is often for religious and cultural reasons rather than for the purpose of HIV prevention. Modernization and peer pressure have been documented as other reasons for male circumcision. Medical indications for male circumcision include phimosis and paraphimosis. In most regions and districts this is done in health facilities but in some districts traditional male circumcision is still being practiced. In Tanzania, male circumcision is commonly practiced in many communities and the overall prevalence is about 70% (THIS 2003/04).

Though THIS findings indicated that the difference between HIV prevalence among circumcised and uncircumcised men was not significant (7% versus 6%), ecological comparison from the same study show a pattern of lower HIV prevalence in circumcising than in non-circumcising belts. For example, the high HIV-prevalence regions of Mbeya and Iringa have relatively low male circumcision rates (34.4% and 37.7% respectively) compared to Manyara with male circumcision rate of above 80% and HIV prevalence of 2%.

Strategic Objective
To promote medically safe male circumcision for health benefits and as a preventive measure against HIV transmission

Strategies

  • Establish national policy framework for coordination and implementation of male circumcision
  • Public advocacy and mobilization for male circumcision
  • Expansion of male circumcision services in the country

Intervention Area 3a:  Prevention of Transmission in Health-Care Settings: Safe Blood

Preamble

HIV transmission through blood-transfusion, contaminated blood-products, occupational exposure in  health care settings as well as through traditional practices (skin piercing, female genital mutilation, unsafe male circumcision) account only for a relatively low percentage of the overall transmission. However, reduction of transmission risks in these settings is of importance to safeguard the health of the population in general and of the health service providers.

The MOHSW has continued to ensure that blood transfusion is safe in all levels of health services by screening blood for Transfusion Transmissible Infections (TTIs) which include HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis. Health care workers have also been trained on injection safety and proper hospital waste management.

Strategic objective

Increase supply of safe blood from 15% to 50% of the blood transfusing hospitals by 2012.
Strategies

  1. Strengthen the distribution capacity of National Blood Transfusion Services (NBTS) at all levels.
  2. Promote community awareness for blood donation.
  3. Strengthen the M&E system and Quality Assurance scheme for NBTS.

Intervention Area 3b:  Prevention of Transmission in Health-Care Settings: Workplace Interventions for Health Care Workers (HCW)

Preamble
Health Care Workers (HCWs) may acquire infection at places of work as an occupational risk or through sexual networking. In health care settings, universal bio-safety precautions and safe waste management is essential for prevention of nosocomial transmission of infectious agents.

Strategic Objective
To implement comprehensive workplace interventions in the health sector focused on the prevention, care, treatment and support of employees, employers and their families.

Strategies

  1. Strengthen and promote Health Sector workplace HIV interventions.

Intervention area 4a: Vulnerable Population Groups: Targeted Youth Programmes

Preamble
Young people aged 10 to 24 constitute a third of the Tanzanian population. About 4% of women aged 15-24 and 3% of men 15-24 are HIV positive. (TDHS 2004-2005).  Prevention of HIV in young people is an investment that will ensure future HIV-free generations.  In Tanzania 22% of 15-19 year-old girls are married. Further research shows that more than 30% of sexually active girls had a coerced sexual debut. Once they become sexually active, young people tend to have multiple partners. About 52% of female19 years old, had been pregnant or had had a child, and almost half of these had no formal education.  Nearly a third of the victims of unsafe abortion were teenagers, of whom almost half were 17 years of age or younger. Females and males aged 15-24 had had sex before 15 and 18 years respectively. Twelve percent of young women and 9% of young men had had sex by age 15. (TDHS 2004-2005). Young people must be proactive to protect themselves from unwanted pregnancies as well as HIV AND AIDS and other Sexually Transmitted Infections

Strategic Objective
Increase adolescents access, participation and utilization of innovative integrated and quality health services.

Strategies

  1. Ensure availability of effective HIV- ASRH interventions for youth
  2. Promote positive attitude and behavior change in communities among parents and adolescents through behavior change communication strategy
  3. Strengthen management and coordination mechanism for HIV and ASRH services at all levels.

Intervention area 4b: Most At Risk Populations (MARPs): Commercial Sex Workers (CSW), Men with have sex with men (MSM, mobile workers, and Injecting Drug Users (IDUs).

Preamble
Vulnerability to HIV infection is substantially higher in specific population groups than in the general sexually active population. This is either related directly to their occupational activities (sex workers), their social and cultural marginalization (MSM), or their professions which bring them in frequent contacts with places of sexual mixing (bar maids). Such occupations necessitate longer periods of separation from families or stable relationships (migrant workers including miners, military) or complete breakdown of stable social environment (refugees, injecting drug users). These groups need special attention because of their importance in the dynamics of the epidemic when they act as a bridge for transmission from their sub group to the general population.

Men who have sex with men (MSM)
Despite the fact that, it is widely spoken, there is no hard data regarding MSM although MSM practices have been reported in institutional settings. However, MSM have not been considered to any great extent in national HIV and AIDS interventions. MSM behaviors and sexualities may include bisexuality, and HIV epidemic amongst MSM and the heterosexual HIV epidemic are thus interconnected.

Sex Workers
Sex workers are predominantly female and are at very high risk of HIV infection and are vulnerable due to multiple sexual networks and limited capacity to ensure safe sex during each and every sexual encounter.

Injecting drug use (IDU)
Injecting drug use has long been recognized as a high risk practice for HIV transmission as needles and syringes may be shared between users without sterilization. The extent of IDU in Tanzania is under-researched.

Drug use enhances the risk of HIV infections either directly or indirectly by lowering inhibitions, which lead to risky behaviours. The results of THIS (2003-2004) showed that there were higher prevalence of HIV, especially when the alcohol use is by the female partner –overall was 8% (13.7% women and 6.9% men). The spread of HIV is associated with all forms of drug use including smoking, alcohol use, inhalation and drug injecting. In particular, drug in-take through shared syringes poses a higher risk of HIV infection.

A study carried out in 2001 in Dar-es-salaam, in densely populated area, indicated that 18% of drug users are IDUs. More recent studies revealed that between 31% and 42% of IDUs are HIV positive and the situation is more serious among females.

Strategic objective

Prevent transmission of HIV among MARPs.

Strategies

  1. Advocacy for policy change for MARPs.
  2. Support research studies on the magnitude and characteristics of MARPs
  3. Ensure availability of effective HIV risk reduction interventions for MARPs.
  4. Establish public - private partnership with appropriate stakeholders dealing with MARPs

Intervention area 5: Prevention Services for People Living with HIV and AIDS (Positive Prevention)

Preamble
Positive prevention aims at assisting people living with HIV and AIDS to take measures that avoid exposing others to infection as well as avoiding re-infection. Re-infection has a negative impact on disease pathogenesis. If preventive measures are not undertaken by PLHIV, infection may be transmitted to others including discordant couples. Also, if PLHIV get re infected with new types of viruses, this can aggravate the progression of the infection. Data from Tanzania (THIS 2003/2004) revealed that up to 8% of couples in the country have discordant HIV sero-status. This calls for the need to promote positive prevention. Stigma is still a bottleneck in making PLHIV access care and treatment services. Major stigma incidences are observed in health care settings and in communities.

Strategic Objective
Reduce the risk of PLHIV getting new infections or infecting others with HIV.

Strategies

  1. Encourage meaningful involvement of PLHIV at all levels.
  2. Support individually focused health promotion to enhance disclosure of HIV positive status.
  3. Integrate positive prevention in prevention, care, treatment and support services at all levels.
  4. Encourage couple counseling and testing and other care and treatment services.


Thematic Area 2: Care and Treatment for People living with HIV and AIDS
The objective of this priority area is to improve the wellbeing of People living with HIV (PLHIV) by providing treatment, care, and other clinical services for the management of opportunistic infections

Introduction

Care and treatment services for people living with HIV and AIDS include provision of ARVs, and other clinical services for the management of opportunistic infections. Wide access to ARVs was initiated in the country in October 2004 as part of the National care and treatment plan (2003-2008). The National care and treatment plan targeted to enroll 440,000 patients on ART by end five years of implementation. During the first year for implementation the target was to provide ARV to 44,000 patients. The targets were further increased to provide ART services to 100,000 by end of 2006.  In terms of facility coverage the number increased from 96 to 200 by December 2007. These facilities included all referral regional and district hospitals as well as some private and Faith Based hospitals.  All the same home based care is a imperative service in mitigating the physical, mental, spiritual, and socio-economic difficulties experienced by PLHIV and their families, completing the bridge in the continuum of care for the health services to the community. HSS target for 2003 – 2006 was to provide services to 5,000 PLHIV by 2005, conversely by the end of 2006 PLHIV reached with HBC services were 50,000 and the services had been established in 70 districts (53%) in Tanzania mainland.

The major challenge has been the capacity to reach the primary health facilities so as to increase access of services to rural communities. Other challenges include widespread stigma and discrimination and ability to sustain quality services.

This section addresses provision of care, treatment and support services across a continuum of care at health facility and community levels.

Intervention Area 1: Facility Based Services

Preamble

The plan focuses on scaling up activities, strengthening adherence to ART, integrating various HIV and AIDS programs with other health programs, and linking facility based interventions to community and home based care services. The strategy has taken into consideration the fact that there is low enrolment of children and males, and has designed activities aiming at increasing enrolment of these populations, including early infants’ diagnosis and follow up of children exposed to HIV.

Strategic Objective - 1
To strengthen and scale up implementation of comprehensive care and treatment services in public and private facilities so as to provide ART services to 90% of all PLHIV in need of ART of which 18% will be children by 2012

Strategies

  • Strengthen capacity for implementing Comprehensive Care, Treatment and Support.
  • Increase access to and delivery of ART for Adults.
  • Increase access to and strengthen pediatric treatment (ART).
  • Advocate for introduction of task shifting  to address shortage of  human  resources

Strategic Objective - 2
To improve the quality of care for both PLHIV as well as TB patients by strengthening the collaboration between TB and HIV programs at all levels.

Strategies

  • Establish and implement mechanisms for collaboration between TB, HIV and AIDS related services.
  • Strengthen the capacity of health care workers to ensure adequate and appropriate screening for prophylaxis or early treatment of TB in PLHIV.
  • Reduce the burden of HIV in TB patients.
  • Reduce the burden of TB in PLHIV.

Strategic Objective - 3
To provide quality HIV/AIDS care and treatment to PLHIV and improve the quality of life by 2012.

Strategies

  • Establish packages of HIV treatment and care appropriate for different levels of care.
  • Strengthen and scale up HIV Care and Treatment related training to enhance skills of HCWs at all levels.
  • Strengthen the system of Quality Assurance of HIV Care and Treatment Services.
  • Strengthening capacity for decentralized monitoring and evaluation of HIV care and treatment at all levels with efficient system for tracking patients

Intervention Area 2:   Community Based Care Services

Preamble
The number of patients with HIV and AIDS related diseases continues to increase steadily. Between 50% - 60% of adult patients admitted in medical wards are believed to be due to HIV related causes. This places a significant burden on health professionals caring for the terminally ill. It is becoming difficult to give quality care in many of the already overburdened public health care facilities. In addition, results from studies done among patients with advanced HIV disease showed that many preferred to be nursed at home.

The introduction of ART services in Tanzania has been challenged to establish effective linkages with successful home based care programs in order to increase patient identification, support adherence to treatment and follow-up.

Strategic Objective - 1
To strengthen and scale up the implementation of standard package of home based care services for HIV and AIDS in all districts.
To strengthen effective linkages and referrals between community based and clinical service to ensure the provision of comprehensive services across a continuum of care for PLHIV

Strategies

  • Ensure accessibility and availability of standard package of  HBC and support services for PLHIV through collaboration and networking with NGOs, FBOs  and CSOs
  • Formulate policy guidelines to allow the use of oral morphine at home setting
  • Strengthen collaborative TB, HIV and AIDS interventions at the community level.
  • Inclusion of standard package of HBC services in the comprehensive council health plans (CCHPs).
  • Strengthen coordination and standardization of HBC services
  • Strengthen capacity for supportive supervision, for HBC services
  • Establish mechanisms for effective referrals and networking among key stakeholders


Thematic Area 3: Cross cutting issues
The objective of this priority area is to adapt existing programs and develop innovative responses to reduce the impact of the epidemic on communities, social services and economic productivity.

Introduction

The National Multi-Sectoral Strategic Framework on HIV AND AIDS 2008-2012, lists cross cutting issues including the enabling environment and gives a set of strategic objectives and core strategies for each objective. The areas are mentioned as follows:

  • Laboratory services,
  • Counseling and testing,
  • IEC, BCC and fighting stigma, and
  • Condom promotion.

These areas are cross-cutting and have a bearing on each of the activities in prevention, treatment, care and support thematic areas.

Intervention Area 1: Laboratory Services

Preamble

Laboratory is one of the important components in HIV and AIDS interventions. It supports prevention, care and treatment services as well as monitoring the epidemic and drug susceptibility activities. In order to support the comprehensive HIV and AIDS interventions, it is important to have good quality and equitable laboratory services.

Strategic Objective

Strengthen laboratory system at all levels to support prevention, care, treatment and other interventions for STI, HIV and AIDS.

Strategies

Ensure availability of appropriate laboratory infrastructure and equipment in health facilities including infant diagnosis

Strengthen logistic system to ensure uninterrupted supply of reagents in all health facilities for diagnosis and monitoring of STI, HIV and AIDS and major OI

  • Strengthen capacity to monitor drug resistance for ARV, Anti TB, STI and OI drugs.
  • Implement and strengthen the national laboratory quality assurance scheme
  • Develop system for regular equipment maintenance including strengthening of laboratory equipment workshops.

Intervention Area 2:  HIV Testing and Counseling (HTC) Services

Preamble

The National Guidelines for Voluntary Counseling and Testing (2005) clearly state that HTC provides an opportunity to access accurate and comprehensive information on HIV, AIDS and STIs. It serves as an entry point to prevention, care, treatment and support, programmes and enables people to understand their HIV status and learn about supportive behaviors for protecting and preventing further spread of HIV.

It has been noted that the demand for counseling and testing is high creating the need to introduce new   approaches for HIV Testing and Counseling (HTC) to complement the client initiated Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT). These new approaches include Provider Initiated Testing and Counseling (PITC) and Home Based Counseling and Testing a (HBCT). Further more; the existing public, private and voluntary agencies services are available in only a small proportion of health facilities and cannot handle the high demand for this service. The establishment of stand alone VCT sites has been slow and unsatisfactory. Therefore, there is need to expand the existing systems.

Strategic Objective
To improve access and enhance use of quality HIV Testing and Counseling (HTC).

Strategies

  • Strengthen existing VCT services and promote the establishment of  other HTC approaches testing including services for special groups
  • Ensure availability  of appropriate standard operating procedures (SOPs) for HTC to all health and non health services
  • Strengthen and support HTC as an integral component for HIV/AIDS/STI/TB prevention, treatment care and support.
  • Ensure availability of a comprehensive HTC guideline to include all testing and counseling approaches.

Intervention Area 3a: IEC, BCC Programming and Stigma Reduction   Interventions: Behavioral Change Communication (BCC)

Preamble
Behavior change communication (BCC) is a process by which information and skills are shared and disseminated to people in the specific target audience with the intention of influencing them to adopt sustained changes in behavior or attitude. Behavior change as a process, involves knowledge and attitudes, a favorable social, cultural and physical environment for the expected change to take place.

Strategic Objective
Improve the provision of HIV and AIDS information through innovative approaches based on available evidence.

Strategies

  • Produce IEC materials targeting different age and social groups
  • Ensure availability of print and electronic IEC materials for universal access to prevention, care, treatment and support at all levels.
  • Strengthen collaborative IEC activities/ interventions with different partners.
  • Strengthen NACP library
  • Strengthen distribution of IEC materials especially to rural areas.

Intervention Area 3c: IEC, BCC programming and Stigma Reduction Interventions: Stigma and Discrimination

Preamble
Stigma is a mark of shame or discredit on a person or a group of people. Stigma can manifest itself in a variety of ways, from ignoring the needs of a person or group to psychologically or physically harming those who are stigmatized.

Stigma causes discrimination which in turn leads to human rights violations for PLHIV and their families. Stigma and discrimination fuel HIV and AIDS epidemic because they hamper prevention and care efforts by sustaining silence and denial about HIV and AIDS. Also they contribute in the marginalization of PLHIV and those who are particularly vulnerable to HIV infection like men who have sex with men (MSM), sex workers (SWs), survivors of rape, Injecting Drug Users (IDUs), migrant populations and others.

The importance of addressing stigma in the context of BCC campaigns has programmatic implications that go beyond compassion and humane treatment. Failure to address stigma jeopardizes BCC programs in prevention, quality of care and policy.

Strategic Objective
Ensure stigma reduction interventions at all levels of health system..

Strategies

  • Promote development and integration of stigma reduction interventions at all levels of health system.
  • Strengthen coordination mechanism on  stigma and discrimination reduction activities at all levels

Intervention Area 4: Condom Promotion and Use

Preamble

Promotion of female and male condoms and their proper use are recognized to be an important aspect for prevention of sexual transmission of HIV and STIs/RTIs. Despite the concerted efforts towards condom promotion, their wider acceptance and use is still a challenge. Myths and misconceptions surrounding condom use still exists. There is a strong need to continue with rigorous efforts and/or campaigns including social marketing in order to minimize barriers towards condom use.

Strategic Objective
Strengthen promotion, availability, accessibility and use of condoms

Strategies

  • Establish private-public partnership to create alternative condom distribution outlets
  • Establish private-public partnership to promote use of condom using different innovative approaches
  • Provide  comprehensive information and education to health care workers
  • Strengthen condom programming  and monitoring systems
  • Support operational research on condoms

Thematic area 4: HEALTH SYSTEM STRENGTHENING

Introduction
Successful scale-up and utilization of a broad range of HIV and AIDS services and products requires a well functioning health system. The system should be able to respond, not only to current, but also to future emerging and re-emerging HIV and AIDS issues

In order for the system to produce the expected outcomes, it is necessary to have a mechanism that will ensure that appropriate inputs and processes are in place and are based on a strong foundation. Conceptually, as can be seen from Table 8, the system is expected to have a strong leadership base, strong programme management system, adequate human resource mix, efficient procurement and supply system. In addition, it requires strategic information and a good financial base to sustain it.

It is recognised that health systems constraints are the root cause of the poor outcomes of health interventions.  It is therefore, necessary to examine the health system and find out whether it is able to provide answers to the following questions:

  • Is it possible and what constraints need to be overcome to make HIV and AIDS interventions in the health sector available to the large numbers of people in need- i.e. are we delivering good services and ensuring healthy outcomes in a fair manner for the whole health sector?
  • How will the equity principle be maintained in the inevitably incremental process of scale up or roll-out- i.e. is it possible to leverage the additional HIV and AIDS resources to address existing health challenges and  improve the overall health care delivery?
  • Is it feasible to structure the investments in HIV and AIDS interventions so that they do not divert scarce resources away from other essential activities and instead benefit the health system for delivery of all health programs- i.e when introducing HIV and AIDS interventions, are we safeguarding the existing programs from further deterioration- stewardship, leadership role?

The major health system constraints in general can be grouped into 2 parts:

  • Demand side where there is lack of universal access to a service delivery infrastructure. Examples of demand side barriers are, affordability, distance and governance to accessing services, inadequate service delivery infrastructure, weak drug regulatory and supply systems and multiple donor interests which might not be in tandem with national interests.
  • The supply side of the constraint is human resources, inadequate infrastructure, organization of the health facilities and the way the service delivery is traditionally organized.

However, the constraints of the two parts are not mutually exclusive.
Strengthening health systems as part of HIV and AIDS scale up plan should ensure that

  • Wider benefits of the general health system are achieved by making possible the integration of HIV and AIDS intervention into existing health systems and
  • Specific scale up or expansion of HIV and AIDS programmes is realized through building the necessary new infrastructure.

The entry points for the integration of STI, HIV and AIDS interventions can be at the point of service delivery, in the management of programs at district or local level, in the financing, procurement of resources and in the monitoring of programs at national level.

Therefore the two aspects of health system strengthening in terms of ensuring wider benefits while scaling up STI, HIV and AIDS programs will be addressed in this thematic section.

Intervention Area 1: National Strategic Planning and Program Management

Preamble
As indicated in the introduction, HIV and AIDS epidemics have increased the burden in the already overstretched health care delivery system. This calls for innovative and renewed thinking on health systems and service delivery as well as infrastructure, human resources development and planning.

This section explores how strengthening health service delivery at all levels would be done through:

  • Innovative and renewed thinking on the organization of the health services
  • Joint program management in:
    • Planning, implementation and reporting of activities,
    • quality improvement and standard setting
    • resource mobilization, utilization and accountabilities
  • Providing technical support to non health sectors and development partners
  • Options for delivering HIV interventions at community and household levels through partnerships and involvement of community-based organizations and PLHIV.

Strategic Objective
Strengthen managerial capacity for planning, resource allocation, utilization, implementation and monitoring of all, HIV and AIDS interventions at all levels.

Strategies

  • Ensure capacity improvement for planning, resource allocation and implementation of HIV and AIDS programs.
  • Strengthen coordination of HIV and AIDS interventions at all levels
  • Strengthen and implement system of quality improvement of HIV and AIDS interventions.

Intervention area 2: Procurement and supply management Systems for STI, HIV and AIDS medicines, health commodities, laboratory reagents and supplies

Preamble
Procurement, supply and management of medicines, health commodities and reagents are an important element for the HIV and AIDS responses. The Medical Stores Department was established to offer a centralized procurement, storage and distribution system for all health commodities. The MSD is the main stockiest and distributor of all medicines and laboratory supplies. Due to emerging demands of major public health diseases including HIV and AIDS, the ability of MSD coping with the demands is constrained.

Most HIV and AIDS medicines have been developed in the recent years and hence their long term safety in large populations have not been well established. For that reason, Tanzania Food and Drug Authority (TFDA) has in place a pharmacovigilance system for all medicines whereby health workers report adverse drug reactions occurring in their places of work.

Pharmacovigilance is a terminology used to indicate the process of detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of adverse effects, particularly long term and short term side effect of medicines.  The long term and short term side effects are termed Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR) on patients that are using a pharmaceutical product.

Strategic objective

To strengthen procurement, supply management and pharmacovigilance systems for STI, HIV and AIDS medicines, diagnostics and other commodities

Strategies

  • Build capacity of Medical Stores Department for procurement, storage and supply management systems for HIV and AIDS medicines, diagnostics and other commodities
  • Regular revision of NEMLIT and availability of HIV and AIDS, STI and opportunistic Infections (OIs) related medicines.
  • Strengthen the National Pharmacovigilance system for tracking and providing feedback on ADR associated with HIV and AIDS, STI and OIs medication.

Intervention area 3: Human Resource

Preamble

Implementation of the HS HIV and AIDS Strategy II (2008-2012) to a large extent will depend on the number and quality of health workers at all levels in the health system. Tanzania has serious human resource for health shortage reaching a crisis situation.  The establishment requires 55,404 HCWs of different cadre while only 21, 248 HCW (15,403 public and 5,845 private) are in place. Therefore, the implementation of the country’s health policy relies on the available 38% of the required human resource.

Strategic Objective
Establish a system to build and sustain human resource.

Strategies

  • Strengthen  the institution responsible for managing the response at national level (NACP secretariat)  with the optimum number of human resource mix
  • Strengthen regions so that they have the human resource capacity for providing technical support to council at district levels
  • To contribute to human resource training master plan for the staff required for managing the HIV and AIDS responses

Intervention area 4a: Strategic information: Monitoring and Evaluation System

Preamble

Tanzania AIDS commission (TACAIDS) is responsible for organisation and coordination of the  national HIV and  AIDS monitoring and evaluation (M&E) plan. Drawing from the national multisectoral M&E, the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, through its NACP, organises the health sector M&E plan M&E unit of NACP is responsible for second generation surveillance and M&E of health sector interventions according to the health sector strategy for HIV/AIDS.

In collaboration with partners and academic institutions the M&E unit is responsible for standardization of M&E of HIV and AIDS intervention through development of protocols, training materials, and supervision guides. It also develops, prints and distributes data collection tools to all facilities, train regional and district trainers. It also coordinates implementation, analysis of data to produce reports and disseminate to all levels.
In addition to the second generation surveillance. The unit is currently implementing M&E activities for HIV and AIDS chronic care, HTC, PMTCT and STI, and  M&E system for HBC is being established.
Service data is collected and summarised at service provision points using standardised forms and it flows to the district, regional and national levels.At each level a  summary is generated and disseminated.

Strategic Objective

Strengthen monitoring and evaluation system to provide relevant comprehensive information in a timely manner for program management and planning.
Strategies

  • Formulate  a comprehensive M & E system for HSHSP II
  • Strengthen supportive supervision for M& E.
  • Build capacity for M&E at facility, district, regional and national levels.
  • Establish data quality assurance system

Intervention area 4b: Strategic information: Behavioral and Biological Surveillance on STI, HIV and AIDS

Preamble
In the transmission of HIV infection, both biological and behavioural factors play a significant role. Thus surveillance of HIV and AIDS needs to include both biological and behavioural aspects.

Strategic Objective
Strengthen surveillance activities to monitor the dynamics of the epidemic and the impact of STI, HIV and AIDS interventions.
Strategies

    • Strengthen biological and behavioral surveillance systems for STI, HIV and AIDS
    • Establish surveillance activities for most at risk populations (MARPs).
    • Introduce alternative and user friendly technologies for syphilis testing.
    • Validate PMTCT and HTC HIV prevalence data

Intervention area 4c: Strategic information: Surveillance of HIV, STIs and TB Drugs Resistance as well as Drug Adverse Effects

Preamble
While the HIV and AIDS interventions are scaled up, there is a risk of emergence of HIV drug resistance. This risk needs to be identified early so that appropriate measures are instituted.

It must be borne in mind that before the start of the national HIV care and treatment program already there were PLHIV on ARVs. These individuals had used ARVs without existence of national HIV and AIDS treatment guidelines. Therefore, there is a fear of having a pool of people with resistant organisms.

There is also need to monitor STI and TB drug susceptibility patterns to inform policies on management of STIs and possible emergence of multi-drug resistant TB.

Strategic objective
Strengthen surveillance of ARVs and STI drug resistance as well as pharmacovigilance of ARVs, STI drugs and OI medication
Strategies

      • Establish a system for monitoring STI drugs susceptibility
      • Implement HIV drug resistance strategy

Strengthen pharmacovigilance activities for ARVs, STI and OI medication

Intervention Area 5:   Priority HIV and AIDS and STI Research

Preamble
Research is essential in providing evidence- based information needed to support the national response against HIV and AIDS epidemic. Research facilitates the identification and understanding the drivers of HIV spread and maintains quality of response (interventions)

Strategic Objective
To strengthen the health sector capacity to contribute to national HIV and AIDS and STI related research and development
Strategies

      • Strengthen research coordination on STI, HIV and AIDS.
      • Promote national research priorities in HIV/AIDS
      • Ensure adequate national dissemination of research findings
      • Conduct Operation Research (OR) in HIV and AIDS and promote  use of evidence generated for Programming and Policy making

Intervention Area 6: Documentation of Best Practices on HIV and AIDS in Tanzania

Preamble
A Best Practice on HIV and AIDS is a body of knowledge about an aspect of HIV prevention, treatment or care that is based on practical experiences and lessons learned in a maturing field. A best practice should be replicable to improve the quality of an intervention that has as its objective the mitigation of one aspect of the HIV epidemic.
The primary purpose of a Best Practice is to :

  • document, understand and appreciate good and bad  experiences
  • facilitate learning about what works and what doesn’t
  • share experiences
  • assist the replication of successful interventions on a larger scale

Strategic Objective
Ensure establishment of mechanisms to document best practices on HIV and AIDS
Strategies

    • Ensure availability of   a framework to guide  documentation  and sharing of best practices on HIV and AIDS in the Health Sector
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Nov

National Milestone

National Response Milestone


In Tanzania the first AIDS cases were reported in the Northwest region of Kagera. The following are the key milestones accomplished since the emergence of HIV and AIDS in Tanzania:
1983: First AIDS cases reported
1985: AIDS Task Force
1985- 1986: Short Term Plan (STP)
1987: NACP established  and launched in 1988 to coordinate the implementation
1987-1991: First Medium Term Plan (MTP - I)
1992-1996: Second Medium Term Plan (MTP - II)
1998-2002: Third Medium Term Plan (MTP - III)
2001: TACAIDS established
2003: The National Care and Treatment Plan for HIV and AIDS (NCTP)
2003–2006: Health Sector Strategy for HIV/AIDS (HSS)
2003-2007:- National Multi- Sectoral Strategic Framework on HIV/AIDS(NMSF)
2008: The HIV and AIDS (Prevention and Control) Act, 2008
2008- 2012: The Second National Multi-Sectoral  Strategic framework on HIV and AIDS
2008- 2012: Health Sector HIV and AIDS Strategic Plan - II (HSHSP-II)

1983: First AIDS cases reported
The first AIDS cases in Tanzania were reported in the Northwest region of Kagera in 1983. This is also the region where the highest levels of prevalence were detected in the late eighties. In the following years HIV spread to all regions of Mainland Tanzania and at a slower rate to the regions of Zanzibar.

1985: AIDS Task Force
Institutional efforts to combat HIV/AIDS started in Tanzania by establishing a National AIDS Task Force within the Ministry of Health (MOH) in May 1985, which later became the National AIDS Technical Advisory Committee. This was so because the HIV/AIDS epidemic was first perceived as a health problem and the initial control efforts were formulated and based within the health sector. This Task Force developed a short-term plan.

1985 - 1986: Short Term Plan (STP)
The Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) Party Executive Committee discussed the problem of AIDS in its National Executive Committee in April 1986 and from early 1989 decided to include AIDS in its regular NEC meetings agenda. With assistance from the World Health Organisation/Global Programme on AIDS (WHO/GPA), a short Term Plan (STP) was formed for the period 1985 - 1986 which aimed at the mobilization of health sector through training health workers and establishing blood safety measures.

1987: NACP established  and launched in 1988
In 1987, the Tanzania National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) was established and formally launched in 1988 with the overall aim of reducing the incidence of HIV infection and its associated morbidity and mortality.

1987 - 1991: Medium Term Plan One (MTP - I)
A five-year Medium Term Plan one (MTP-1) for AIDS Control was developed by MOH with advice from the World Health Organization in March 1987 and it was implemented for the period of 1987 - 1991. The NACP which administratively was established within the Department of Preventive Services of the Ministry of Health began implementing MTP- I in April 1988. Four technical units and one management unit were established within the NACP to guide implementation of the MTP- I. These were:

  • Information, Education and Communication (IEC)
  • Laboratory and Blood Transfusion
  • Clinical Services
  • Epidemiology and Research
  • Management


Management
Later on, a sexually transmitted diseases (STD) component was added to the Clinical Services Unit as a response to the increasing recognition that STDs facilitated HIV transmission. A sixth Unit- Counseling and Social Support was established in 1990 after a number of AIDS patients became more prominent. Sub- Committees were formed for each unit to provide technical support.

The objectives of the NACP's First MTP- I were centered around the following three main areas:

  1. Reducing HIV infection through prevention
    • To decrease sexual transmission of HIV
    • To decrease transmission by blood products
    • To reduce transmission by injection and skin piercing objects
    • To prevent HIV infection through contact with infected materials
    • To reduce mother to child transmission
  1. Monitoring and Research
    • To assess the status of the epidemic
    • To monitor progression of the epidemic
    • To improve research activities
  1. Coping with HIV/AIDS
    • To ensure optimal quality of life of AIDS patients
    • To improve diagnostic capacities

Decentralization in MTP - I
In 1987 Heads of Departments from the MOH, Regional Medical Officers (RMOs), and other health officials met to discuss the implementation of MTP- 1. Starting with the appointments of 20 Regional and 103 District AIDS Control Co-coordinators (RACCS and DACCS) in 1987, AIDS activities were first decentralized to the regional level. The process took about two years to reach the districts.

The need for a Multi-Sectoral response to HIV/AIDS has been evident since the MTP I, when it was realized that prevention and control of HIV/AIDS were far beyond the capacity of the health sector alone and would require active involvement of all sectors at all levels.

Review of MTP -1 in 1991
The review team visited many organizations, regions and districts, interviewing scores of senior CCM and government leaders, donor agency representatives, government and non-government field workers, shopkeepers, barmaids, hotel keepers and many others. They assessed constraints and recommended future directions for the Program.

Experience during MTP - 1 clearly showed that one sector could not act effectively if it is working on behalf of another sector. Each sector needed to have a central focus for planning and managing AIDS control activities, which fall within its sphere of influence. The review observed that the Programme had a vertical structure. The numerous recommendations of the review advocated decentralization, Multi-Sectoral involvement, community mobilization and NGO involvement as the main strategies of MTP - II.
1992 - 1996: Medium Term Plan Two (MTP - II)

MTP I evaluation was undertaken in 1991 and the evaluation recommendations were used in designing MTP II which was implemented for the period of 1992- 1996. In April 1991 the framework for MTP -II (1992- 1996) was established. During a workshop attended by government Ministries, NGO's and donors, roles and responsibilities were assigned to the different actors who would be involved in MTP - II. Decentralization was re- emphasized and in order to facilitate for district planning, detailed intervention proposals also known as frontline packages were developed.

Other major characteristics of MTP - II was the involvement of non- health sectors, which formulated their plans for inclusion in MTP - II.

From 1989, AIDS Control efforts were decentralized to the regions and districts, and from 1992, control efforts started also to be initiated within non-health sectors. The non-health sectors, which joined the NACP, included:

  1. Prime Ministers Office
  2. Ministry of Regional Administration and Local Government
  3. Justice Division
  4. Ministry of Education and Culture
  5. Ministry Community Development, Women Affairs and Children
  6. Ministry of Labor and Youth Development
  7. Youth Development Department
  8. Social Welfare Department
  9. Organization of Tanzania Trade Unions (OTTU)
  10. Ministry of Defense and National Services
  11. Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) and Party Organizations
  12. Parent Associations (WAZAZI)
  13. Youth Organization (VIJANA)
  14. Ministry of Information and Broadcasting
  15. Ministry of Home Affairs
  16. Police
  17. Prisons

 

The main strategies and thrusts of MTP- II

  • Multisectoral involvement, through broadening of actors involved in AIDS control and prevention to all government Ministries and sectors, NGOs and private sector.
  • Decentralisation of Programme activities to the regional and district level to focus on local communities.
  • Community mobilization and involvement with community based IEC activities directed at risk groups especially the youth.
  • More emphasis on STD control and prevention.

 

By the year 2000 there were 23 other sectors that had joined the National Response to HIV/AIDS, and have developed AIDS action plans including all the districts in the country. During all this time the National AIDS Control Programme, remained the central co-coordinating unit as a Secretariat to the National AIDS Committee (NAC). In addition to Co-ordination, the NACP continued to serve as the main implementing agent for Ministry of Health as well as responding to needs of other non-health sectors.

1998 - 2002: Third Medium Term Plan (MTP - III)

In July 1998 the MOH published a strategic framework for MTP III for the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS/STIs for the period 1998 - 2002. In 26 March 1999, the Prime Minister Hon. F. Sumaye, launched the Third Medium Term Plan (MTP III) with the main objective of providing Multisectoral co-ordination from the national to the community levels.

Each public Institution was to establish a Technical AIDS Committee (TAC) to address HIV/AIDS issues within the context of their institutional activity. He also announced the formation of the National Advisory Committee (later the National Advisory Board on AIDS (NABA). The NABA under the chairmanship of the former President His Excellency Ali Hassan Mwinyi held their first meeting in September 1999.

Objectives of MTP - III

  • To protect and support vulnerable groups against HIV/AIDS.
  • To mitigate the Social-economic impacts of HIV/AIDS.
  • To strengthen the capacity of institutions communities and individuals to arrest the spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and mitigate its impacts.

Priority Areas

The MTP - III focused on 11 priority areas providing a framework for an expanded, Multisectoral response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Tanzania.

  1. Provide Appropriate STD Case Management Services
  2. Reduce unsafe Sexual Behavior among highly mobile population groups
  3. Reduce HIV Transmission among Commercial Sex Workers
  4. Prevent Unprotected Sexual activity among the Military
  5. Reduce vulnerability of Youth to HIV/AIDS/STD
  6. Maintain Safe Blood Transfusion Services
  7. Reduce Poverty Leading to Sexual Survival Strategies
  8. Promote acceptance of Persons Living with HIV/AIDS
  9. Reduce Unprotected Sex among men with Multiple Sex Partners
  10. Improve Education Opportunities especially for girls
  11. Reduce vulnerability women in adverse cultural environment

 

2001: - TACAIDS established
Established in 2001, TACAIDS became operational as the central coordinating structure for the HIV and AIDS National Response in Tanzania Mainland.   TACAIDS under the auspices of the Prime Minister's Office was mandated to lead Multi-Sectoral response. The role of TACAIDS is to intensify the national response through strategic leadership, policy guidance and co-coordinating public, voluntary, private and community efforts.

 

2003: The National Care and Treatment Plan for HIV and AIDS (NCTP): 2003-2008

  1. The first goal of the plan which started in October 2004 is scaling up HIV care and treatment services aiming at having more than 400,000 patients on ART by the end of the fifth year of the program. At the same time, some 1.2 million HIV+ persons not clinically eligible for HAART would be treated and monitored to track disease progression.
  2. Second goal is to strengthen the health care infrastructure through the expansion of human resources, facilities, equipment and comprehensive training in the care and treatment of PLHIV.
  3. Third goal is to foster information, education and communication efforts focusing on increasing public understanding care and treatment, reducing stigma and supporting on going prevention campaign.
  4. Fourth goal is strengthening social support for care and treatment of PLHIV in Tanzania, through home based Care. Local support groups and treatment partners.

2003–2006: Health Sector Strategy for HIV/AIDS (HSS)
The Health Sector Strategy for HIV/AIDS translates the health-related interventions in the National HIV/AIDS Multisectoral Strategic Framework (NMSF) developed by TACAIDS into concrete and detailed activities.

While the NACP remains a technical arm of the Ministry of Health, to spearhead the leadership in the health sector response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, other sectors are increasingly taking up their roles in the spirit of the "Multisectoral response". The overall national Multisectoral response is being co-coordinated by TACAIDS. As a result of that, NACP will mainly focus the Health related activities in the control and prevention of HIV/AIDS/STIs in the country. The NACP is specifically responsible for the following areas in the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic:

Implementation of health sector HIV/AIDS/STIs prevention and care interventions. These interventions include:

  • patient care (hospital based and home based care;
  • STD services,
  • Blood safety;
  • Public health education;
  • Voluntary counseling and testing.
  • Research co-ordination on HIV/AIDS/STIs
  • Surveillance of HIV/AIDS/STD Epidemic
  • Procurement and distribution of supplies and commodities
  • Technical support to other Sectors and Agencies

2003 – 2007- National Multi- Sectoral Strategic Framework on HIV/AIDS(NMSF)
The NMSF was formulated in line with the National Policy on HIV/AIDS, to guide the overall national response to HIV and AIDS. The overall national Multisectoral response is being co-coordinated by TACAIDS.
2008: HIV AND AIDS (PREVENTION AND CONTROL) 2008
An Act to provide for prevention, treatment, care, support and control of HIV and AIDS, for promotion of public health in relation to HIV and AIDS; to provide for appropriate treatment, care and support using available resources to people living with or at risk of HIV and AIDS and to provide for related matters, enacted by Parliament of the United Republic of Tanzania.  This Act was passed in the National Assembly on 1st February 2008 and it will apply to Mainland Tanzania. The Act is divided into 12 sections:

  • Part I: Preliminary Provisions
  • Part II: General Duties
  • Part III: Public Education and Programs on HIV and AIDS
  • Part IV: Testing and Counseling
  • Part V: Confidentiality
  • Part VI: Health and Support services
  • Part VII: Stigma and Discrimination
  • Part VII: Rights and obligations of persons living with HIV and AIDS
  • Part IX: Establishment of Research Committee
  • Part X: Monitoring and Evaluation
  • Part XI: Offences and Penalties
  • Part XII: Miscellaneous Provisions

2008- 2012: The Second National Multi-Sectoral  Strategic framework on HIV and AIDS
The NMSF guides the approaches, interventions and activities which will be undertaken by all actors in the country.

2008- 2012: Health Sector HIV and AIDS Strategic Plan- II (HSHSP-II)
The HSHSP-II will provide guidance to the operations of the sectoral response in the next five years. The theme of HSHSP is “Universal access to Preventive, Care, Treatment and Support services.”

 

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16
Nov

HIV/AIDS in Tanzania

HIV/AIDS in Tanzania


Before 1983, medical professionals in Tanzania took Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) as a disease occurring in America and Europe . Very little attention was focused on this disease. In October 1983, some doctors working in Bukoba hospital, Kagera Region, started to see patients presenting with prolonged diarrhoea accompanied by severe loss of body weight, thinning of body muscles, chronic fever, oropharyngeal candiadosis and genital ulcers. The first 3 patients with AIDS were reported from Ndolange Hospital in the Kagera region in November 1983. The clinical features of these patients were clearly similar to those reported in Rwanda and Zaire. 
Soon after this alarm, more and more cases were reported from this region and by late 1985 these cases were serologically confirmed by the enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot tests.


Initial observation of AIDS cases as reported in Kagera pointed out that the early cases were among adults of both sexes who were involved in cross-border trade, the war, commercial sex workers and truck drivers. This population group indeed, accelerated HIV transmission to other parts of the country; starting with urban centres and then on to the rural areas. The disease was nicknamed "Juliana" after the label on clothes fashionable at that time among prosperous businessmen and women, imported from a neighboring country.


Although between 1983 and 1987 Kagera region continued to report increased numbers of AIDS patients more than any other region, by 1986 all regions of Tanzania Mainland had reported AIDS cases to the Ministry of Health.
There may be underreporting of cases because of inadequate clinical and laboratory diagnostic services throughout the country. It is also likely that multiple reporting of cases may be occurring, weak AIDS case surveillance system and the possibility of patients attending for treatment in different hospitals in the country. Most cases of AIDS have been reported from the age groups of 0-5 years and 15- 45 years with both sexes equally represented. In general, AIDS and HIV infection is more prevalent in urban areas. In a large community based sero survey in Kagera region, the HIV infection prevalence rates ranged from less than 0.5% per cent of the total population in Karagwe, Ngara and Biharamulo to over 30% per cent of adults in Bukoba town.


Between 5% percent and 10% percent cent of blood donated for transfusion and screened for HIV in Iringa, Mbeya and Dar es Salaam in 1988 had HIV antibody. Moreover, between 5% per cent and 23.7% per cent of antenatal clinic attendees screened for HIV at Mwanza, Bukoba and Dar es Salaam had HIV antibody. 
The epidemic of AIDS and HIV infection in Tanzania is associated solely with HIV-1, although elsewhere in the world infections due to HIV-2 also occur. According to analysis of the genetic diversity of HIV-1 in samples from Dar es Salaam and Kagera (Lyamuya et al, 1998) and from Mbeya (Hoelscher et al, 1998) three viral subtypes are common in Tanzania : HIV-1 subtype A, C and D.


It can be argued that the mobility of people and social disruption caused by the war between Uganda and Tanzania that ended in 1979 were a conducive environment for the introduction of the human Immune-deficiency Virus (HIV) and a fertile ground for its spread. Furthermore, after the war, serious economic recession gripped the country. 
As the epidemic continued to unfold in an exponential manner, it became clear that the epidemic required urgent control measures, including studies aimed at assessing the extent of HIV-1 infection in the population. The first sero-survey (an epidemiological study involving serological testing using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was conducted among groups of patients and healthy individuals in Arusha, Dar es Salaam, Kagera, Mwanza regions on mainland Tanzania between 1985 and 1987. The study showed that HIV-1 prevalence rates among pregnant women in these regions were quite substantial, ranging from 0.7% in Arusha region to 16.0% in the Kagera region. Furthermore, the results of this study demonstrated that even as early as 1987, the HIV epidemic had already found its way among population groups considered to be a low risk of HIV infection.


The high HIV infection rates implicitly suggested the need for urgent control measures that should be coordinated through a National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) which was established in 1988 to co-ordinate all HIV/AIDS activities in the country. Also it acted as a link between the government actors and non-government actors (NGOs) in the fight against HIV and AIDS.


Since the establishment of the National AIDS Control Programme (NACP), the progression of the epidemic has been monitored through unlinked, anonymous testing of blood from pregnant women attending ante-natal clinics for the first time in selected sentinel sites.


Current epidemiological data:
A total of 13,285 AIDS cases were reported to the NACP from 21 regions during the year 2005. This resulted into a cumulative total of 205,773 reported cases since 1983 when the first AIDS cases were in Tanzania. In 2003, Tanzania Mainland was estimated to have about 1,840,000 people living with HIV (860,000 males and 980,000 females ) (HIV/AIDS/STI Surveilance Report no. 19). A total of 16,430 AIDS cases were reported to the NACP from 21 regions during the year 2004. This resulted into a cumulative total of 192,532 reported cases since 1983 when the first AIDS cases were in Tanzania. In 2005, Tanzania Mainland was estimated to have about 1,1,770,383 people were living with HIV. of these 656,180 are from urban and 1,114,203 are from rural areas (HIV/AIDS/STI Surveilance Report no. 19).


Modes of Transmission:
In Tanzania , HIV is mainly transmitted through heterosexual intercourse or from mother to child.

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